Djimasbe R.1, Varfolomeev M.A.1, Al-Muntasser A.A.1, Suweid M.A.1, Osin Yu.N.2, Diop F.S.1, Mustafina A.N.1, Garaeva D.I.1 (1Institute of Geology and Oil and Gas Technology, Federal University of Kazan (Volga region), 2Interdisciplinary Center «Analytical Microscopy», Federal University of Kazan (Volga region), Kazan) E-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Облагораживание тяжелой нефти под воздействием сверхкритической воды при различных температурах
Keywords: heavy oil, supercritical water, viscosity, scanning electron microscopy, gas chromatography, IR-spectroscopy, SARA-analysis.
Abstract. In this work, an experimental study of the upgrading of heavy oil under the influence of supercritical water (SCW) at temperatures of 380 °C, 420 °C and 440 °C was carried out. The analysis of the composition and properties of liquid and solid products was carried out using a set of methods including SARA analysis, gas chromatography (GC), IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The results show that with increase of the SCW temperature, an increase in the amount of gaseous products and coke occurs, while the yield of liquid products, their viscosity and density decrease. Data from SARA analysis and gas chromatography showed that with the increase of temperature to 420 °C, the content of the fraction of resins and asphaltenes decreases and the amount of saturated hydrocarbons increases to a maximum value. Similarly, at 420 °C, the vanadium (V) content decreases by 61.66 % in heavy oil, where it should be noted that the vanadium content is very sensitive to temperature changes. The elemental analysis data confirm that, under the influence of SCW, the sulfur content in oil decreases from 4.21 % to 2.43 %. According to the results obtained, it can be noted that the choice of temperature under the action of SCW significantly affects the upgrading of heavy oil. The most optimal temperature for the investigated heavy oil is 420 °C. The use of SCW is of practical interest for upgrading heavy oil, including reservoir conditions.
1. Arutyunov VS, Lisichkin G V. Energy resources of the 21st century: problems and forecasts. Can renewable energy sources replace fossil fuels? Russian Chemical Reviews 2017;86:777.
2. Paez AF, Maldonado Muñoz Y, Ospino Castro AJ. Future scenarios and trends of energy demand in Colombia using long-range energy alternative planning 2017.
3. Grushevenko E, Grushevenko D. Unconventional oil potential tends to change the world oil market. Energy Science and Technology 2012;4:68–74.
4. Afra S, Nasr-El-Din H, Socci D, Cui Z. A novel viscosity reduction plant-based diluent for heavy and extra-heavy oil. SPE Improved Oil Recovery Conference, Society of Petroleum Engineers; 2016.
5. Alshmakhy A, Maini BB. Effects of gravity, foaminess, and pressure drawdown on primary-depletion recovery factor in heavy-oil systems. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology 2012;51:449–56.
6. Meyer RF, Attanasi ED, Freeman PA. Heavy oil and natural bitumen resources in geological basins of the world. US Geological Survey; 2007.
7. Butler R. Some recent developments in SAGD. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology 2001;40.
8. Li J, Zhang L, Yang F, Sun L. Positive measure and potential implication for heavy oil recovery of dip reservoir using SAGD based on numerical analysis. Energy 2020;193:116582.
9. Ghalenavi H, Norouzi-Apourvari S, Schaffie M, Ranjbar M. Significant effect of compositional grading on SAGD performance in a fractured carbonate heavy oil reservoir. Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology 2020;10:903–10.
10. Liang G, Shangqi LIU, Pingping S, Yang LIU, Yanyan LUO. A new optimization method for steam-liquid level intelligent control model in oil sands steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process. Petroleum Exploration and Development 2016;43:301–7.
11. Сидоров ИВ, Юрьев ДА, Коротенко ВА, Фоминых ОВ. Технология площадной циклической закачки пара горизонтальными скважинами при разработке месторождений высоковязкой нефти. Нефтепромысловое Дело 2015:42–5.
12. Franco CA, Cardona L, Lopera SH, Mejía JM, Cortés FB. Heavy oil upgrading and enhanced recovery in a continuous steam injection process assisted by nanoparticulated catalysts. SPE improved oil recovery conference, Society of Petroleum Engineers; 2016.
13. Luft HB, Pelensky PJ, George GE. Development and operation of a new insulated concentric coiled tubing string for continuous steam injection in heavy oil production. SPE International Heavy Oil Symposium, Society of Petroleum Engineers; 1995.
14. Queipo N V, Goicochea J V, Pintos S. Surrogate modeling-based optimization of SAGD processes. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 2002;35:83–93.
15. Akin S, Bagci S. A laboratory study of single-well steam-assisted gravity drainage process. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 2001;32:23–33.
16. Barillas JLM, Dutra Jr T V, Mata W. Reservoir and operational parameters influence in SAGD process. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 2006;54:34–42.
17. Deng S, Wang Z, Gu Q, Meng F, Li J, Wang H. Extracting hydrocarbons from Huadian oil shale by sub-critical water. Fuel Processing Technology 2011;92:1062–7.
18. Li Y, Cui X, Li H, Chen S, Chen M. Application of supercritical water conditions to improve the flowback of fracturing fluid in ultra-low-permeability sandstone formations. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 2020:110273.
19. Choi K, Al-Somali AM, Aljishi MF, Lee J, Al-Dossary MR, Punetha AK. Supercritical water to upgrade petroluem feedstock. AIChE Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT, 2010.
20. Canıaz RO, Erkey C. Process intensification for heavy oil upgrading using supercritical water. Chemical Engineering Research and Design 2014;92:1845–63.
21. Karalis K, Ludwig C, Niceno B. Supercritical water anomalies in the vicinity of the Widom line. Scientific Reports 2019;9:1–10.
22. Timko MT, Ghoniem AF, Green WH. Upgrading and desulfurization of heavy oils by supercritical water. Journal of Supercritical Fluids 2015;96. doi:10.1016/j.supflu.2014.09.015.
23. Vega C, Abascal JLF. Simulating water with rigid non-polarizable models: a general perspective. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 2011;13:19663–88.
24. Morimoto M, Sugimoto Y, Saotome Y, Sato S, Takanohashi T. Effect of supercritical water on upgrading reaction of oil sand bitumen. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids 2010;55:223–31.
25. Fedyaeva ON, Shatrova A V, Vostrikov AA. Effect of temperature on bitumen conversion in a supercritical water flow. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids 2014;95:437–43.
26. Cheng Z-M, Ding Y, Zhao L-Q, Yuan P-Q, Yuan W-K. Effects of supercritical water in vacuum residue upgrading. Energy & Fuels 2009;23:3178–83.
27. Liu Y, Bai F, Zhu C-C, Yuan P-Q, Cheng Z-M, Yuan W-K. Upgrading of residual oil in sub-and supercritical water: An experimental study. Fuel Processing Technology 2013;106:281–8.
28. Сангаджиев ММ, Гавиров БА, Лиджиев ММ, Эрдниева ОГ. Свойства нефти Состинского месторождения. Геология, География и Глобальная Энергия 2014:18–25.
29. Djimasbe R, Al-muntaser AA, Suwaid MA, Varfolomeev MA. Comparison of upgrading of heavy oil and vacuum distillation residues by supercritical water. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, vol. 282, IOP Publishing; 2019, p. 12044.
30. Djimasbe R, Varfolomeev MA, Al-muntaser AA, Yuan C, Suwaid MA, Feoktistov DA, et al. Deep Insights into Heavy Oil Upgrading Using Supercritical Water by a Comprehensive Analysis of GC, GC–MS, NMR, and SEM–EDX with the Aid of EPR as a Complementary Technical Analysis. ACS Omega 2020.
31. Boretskaya A, Lamberov A, Popov A. Identification of amorphous and crystalline phases in alumina entity and their contribution to the properties of the palladium catalyst. Applied Surface Science 2019;496:143635.
32. Fan T, Wang J, Buckley JS. Evaluating crude oils by SARA analysis. SPE/DOE improved oil recovery symposium, Society of Petroleum Engineers; 2002.
33. Xue-Cai Tan, Chun-Chun Zhu, Qing-KunLiu, Tian-YiM, Pei-QingYuan, Zhen-Min Cheng W-K. Co-pyrolysis of heavy oil and low density polyethylene in the presence of supercritical water: the suppression of coke formation. Fuel Processing Technology 2014;118:49–54.
34. Shelepova E V, Vedyagin AA. Intensification of the dehydrogenation process of different hydrocarbons in a catalytic membrane reactor. Chemical Engineering and Processing-Process Intensification 2020;155:108072.
35. Liu J, Xing Y, Chen Y-X, Yuan P-Q, Cheng Z-M, Yuan W-K. Visbreaking of heavy oil under supercritical water environment. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2018;57:867–75.
36. Kida Y, Class CA, Concepcion AJ, Timko MT, Green WH. Combining experiment and theory to elucidate the role of supercritical water in sulfide decomposition. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 2014;16:9220–8.
37. Li N, Yan B, Zhang L, Quan S-X, Hu C, Xiao X-M. Effect of NaOH on asphaltene transformation in supercritical water. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids 2015;97:116–24.
38. Li N, Zhang X, Zhang Q, Chen L, Ma L, Xiao X. Reactivity and structural changes of asphaltene during the supercritical water upgrading process. Fuel 2020;278:118331.
39. Katritzky AR, Barcock RA, Balasubramanian M, Greenhill J V, Siskin M, Olmstead WN. Aqueous high-temperature chemistry of carbo-and heterocycles. 21. Reactions of sulfur-containing compounds in supercritical water at 460. degree. C. Energy & Fuels 1994;8:498–506.
40. Patwardhan PR, Timko MT, Class CA, Bonomi RE, Kida Y, Hernandez HH, et al. Supercritical water desulfurization of organic sulfides is consistent with free-radical kinetics. Energy & Fuels 2013;27:6108–17.
41. Hosseinpour M, Fatemi S, Ahmadi SJ, Morimoto M, Akizuki M, Oshima Y, et al. The synergistic effect between supercritical water and redox properties of iron oxide nanoparticles during in-situ catalytic upgrading of heavy oil with formic acid. Isotopic study. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2018;230:91–101. 42. Hays D, Patrick JW, Walker A. SEM characterization of cokes and carbons. Fuel 1983;62:1079–83