Новые требования к свойствам перспективных масел для автомобильных дизельных и бензиновых двигателей и методам их испытаний
V. A. Zolotov (FAE «The 25th State Research Institute of Chemmotology of Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation», Moscow, Russia)
Keywords: diesel, gasoline engine, engine oils, properties, specification, test method.
Abstract. Analytical information is presented on the development and implementation of new technical requirements for the performance properties of motor oils and new methods of testing them in the specifications for promising automotive engines, taking into account global trends in environmental protection.
Taking into account the latest diesel designs, the European Association of Automakers (Association des Constructeures Europe’enes d’ Automobiles — ACEA) has updated the specifications for engine oils for high-power diesels this year, including low-viscosity oils with an extended shift interval. The changes do not directly concern the assessment of the energy-saving properties of motor oils — saving fuel consumption when using them. ACEA is updating its specifications for heavy-duty heavy-duty diesel engines three years later than their originally planned adoption by the end of 2018. Two new oil categories E8 and E11 have been added to the 2022 ACEA specification with simultaneous replacement of categories E6 and E9, respectively, declared obsolete.
The possibility of using potentially new methods for evaluating their properties — the ability of oils to reduce high-temperature engine wear and the amount of deposits in the turbocharger — is being considered when testing oils of the new GF-7 category. The use of upgraded methods is proposed: a new Noack test to determine the volatility of oils to assess their volatility and consumption, an updated Ford method to assess the pre-ignition of the fuel mixture at low speeds and high torque to ensure engine protection during the service life of the oil. Finally, a number of Original Equipment manufacturers (Original Equipment Manufacturer — OEM) assume the use of low–viscosity oils of classes 0W-8 and 0W-12 according to SAE for their engines, and these brands are likely to be included in the list of tested oils of the GF-7 category according to the new ILSAC specification.