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DOI: 10.32758/2071-5951-2019-0-06-50-52

The establishment of science and technology electronic archive of Chemmotology

Krushinskiy Yu. I.

FAE The 25th State Research Institute of Chemmotology of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation

Keywords: archive, chemmotology, scientific subject, methodology, reflex, organization, activity, system-hate approach.

The question of creation of scientific and technical electronic archive of Chemmotology, for the purpose of systematization, storage, electronic access to scientific data (operational use), and also from the point of view of construction of Chemmotology, as a scientific subject of G. P. Schedrovitskys methodology is considered. The importance of the historical approach to the construction of the electronic archive of Chemmotology is determined. The proposed structure of the electronic archive, as well as the stages and organization of its creation are presented. The archive will allow the initiation of reflection of the obtained results the chemical in 55 years, to systematize the results of work of scientists of Chemmotology and thematisiert their scientific and theoretical concepts.

1. Sereda V.V., Grishin N.N. Uchenye-khimmotologi: Sbornik vypuskov nauchno-biograficheskoy serii 1991 2017 gg. [Scientists-chemistry. Collection of issues of the scientific and biographical series 19912017. Moscow: Publishing house FIRST VOLUME, 2017, 964 p.
2. Krushinskiy Yu. I. Chemmotology and methodology: Formation of theoretical positions of Chemmotology [Khimmotologiya i metodologiya: formirovanie teoreticheskikh polozheniy khimmotologii]. Mir nefteproduktov. Vestnik neftyanykh kompaniy World of Oil Products. The Oil Companies Bulletin. 2018, 10, pp. 2729.
3. Shchedrovitskiy G.P. Filosofiya, nauka, metodologiya: Istoriko-nauchnye issledovaniya i logicheskoe predstavlenie nauki [Philosophy, science, methodology: Historical and scientific research and logical representation of science]. Moscow: Shkola kulturnoy politiki, 1997, 656 p.

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: 621.89+006+94 (73)
DOI: 10.32758/2071-5951-2019-0-06-43-49

The U.S. Army Standartization System and the Qualification Procedures Established by the Department of Defense

Ivanov A.V., Manshev D.A.

FAE The 25th State Research Institute of Chemmotology of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation

Keywords: US Army, standartization, POL, Qualified Products List, Qualified Products Database, Qualified Manufacturers List, qualification product management, qualification product process, standartization policy.

The paper considers the key areas of Petroleum, Oils and Lubricants (POL) standardization, qualification policies and procedures contained in Department of USA Defense (DoD). The system of US Armys standards regarding POL standardization with reference to DoD Instruction 4120.24 Defense Standartization Program Procedures have described.
The basic procedures of SD-6 Provisions Governing Qualification have included. Qualification is a process in advance of, and independent of, an acquisition by which a manufacturers capabilities or a manufacturers or distributors products are examined, tested, and approved to be in conformance with specification requirements, and subsequent approval for inclusion of products in an electronic qualified products list (QPL) or manufacturers in an electronic qualified manufacturers list (QML), which are part of the Qualified Product Database (QPD). Criteria for retention of qualification are applied on a periodic basis to ensure continued integrity of the qualification status.
The fundamentals of AR 70-12 Fuels and Lubricants Standartization Policy for equipment Design, Operation, and Logistic Support have discussed. The detail information regarding primary, alternate and emergency fuels used in US Army materiel have represented. It is stated that before publication of new or revised Lubrication Orders (LOs) or other lubrication instructions for Army materiel that specify application of lubricants, fluids, and associated products, the responsible activity or agency will furnish a draft copy of the LO or document to the Director, TACOM Mobility Technology Center - Fort Belvoir, for technical approval before its publication and distribution. A performance specification or a purchase description will be developed to enable procurement of the additive. Proprietary aftermarket additives, primarily intended for maintenance, facility, and other personnel to use within the field environment, are not to be procured, tested, evaluated, or used by any elements of the Active Army, the Army National Guard, or the U.S. Army Reserve, unless the above required conditions have been fully met.

1. Department of Defense. Instruction 4120.24 Defense Standardization Program (DSP) Procedures. USD (AT&L), Washington D.C.: 24.09.2014 [ ]. : http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/412024m.pdf.
2. Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System API 1509. Edition 17, September 2012 [ ]. : http://www.api.org/Certification-Programs/Engine-Oil-Diesel-Exhaust-Fluid/~/media/Files/Certification/Engine-Oil-Diesel/Publications/150917editionfinal.pdf.;
3. M. Le Pera. Army's past leads to today's lubricant standards // T-biology and Lubrication Technology. April 2008. P. 3038 [ ]. : http://www.stle.org/assets/document/tlt_feature_4-08.pdf.
4. Department of Defense. MIL-STD-3004. Department of Defense Standard Practice. Quality Assurance / Surveillance for Fuels, Lubricants and Related Products. w/Change 1, Washington, DC.: 07.12.2012 [ ]. : http://everyspec.com/MIL-STD/MIL-STD-3000-9999/MIL-STD-3004C_36176.
5. Department of Defense. MIL-HDBK-113C. Guide for Selection of Lubricants, Functional Fluids, Preservatives and Speciality Products for Use in Ground Equipment systems. Washington, DC.: 24.04.1984 [ ]. : http://everyspec.com/MIL-HDBK/MIL-HDBK-0099-0199/MIL-HDBK-113C_12697.
6. Department of Defense. MIL-HDBK-114A. Fuels, Mobility, Handbook. Washington, DC.: 20.07.1990 [ ]. : http://everyspec.com/MIL-HDBK/MIL-HDBK-0099-0199/MIL-HDBK-114A_12694.
7. Department of Defense. Provisions Governing Qualification. Qualified Products Lists and Qualified Manufacturers Lists. 02.2014.
8. Performance Review Institute [ ]. : http://pri-network.org/other-programs/automotive-qpl/lubricant;
9. Program Document PD4000 Gear Lubricant Review Program [ ]. : http://pri-network.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/PD4000-REV-I-FINAL-07NOV14.pdf.
10. Headquarters. Department of the Army. Army Regulation 7012. Fuels and Lubricants Standardization Policy for Equipment Design, Operation, and Logistics Support. Washington, DC.: 19.07.2012 [ ]. : apd.army.milpdffiles/r70_12.pdf.
11. ASTM D 4054. Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives; ASTM D 4054 Users Guide [ ]. : http://www.caafi.org/information/pdf/D4054_Users_Guide_V6_2.pdf;
12. Department of Defense Instruction Number 5000.02 Operation of the Defense Acquisition System. Washington D.C.: 07.11.2015 [ ]. : http://www.acq.osd.mil/fo/docs/500002p.pdf.
13. Headquarters. Department of the Army. Pamphlet 70-3. Research, Development, and Acquisition: Army Acquisition Procedures. 11.03.2014 [ ]. : http://everyspec.com/ARMY/ARMY-General/PAM_70-3_2014_50526.
14. Lubrication Order. Lubrication Instruction. Engine, Gasoline, 10 HP [ ]. : http://www.liberatedmanuals.com/LO-9-2805-258-12.pdf.

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DOI: 10.32758/2071-5951-2019-0-06-37-42

Methodology for determining performance and physicochemical properties of fuels based on chromatographic information

Alatortsev E.I., Leonteva S.A., Podlesnova E.V., Tsyganova M.K.


Keywords: gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, capillary gas chromatography method, high performance liquid chromatography method, performance properties of fuels, physical and chemical properties of fuels.

The development of methods for determining the physical and chemical and perfomance properties of petroleum fuels is based on the correlation of their quality indicators with the hydrocarbon composition. The determination of the hydrocarbon composition is carried out by the developed complex of methods of capillary gas and high-performance liquid chromatography. To calculate fuel quality indicators, chromatographic information on the composition of individual components or their groups is used. Properties of fuels that are additive in nature (for example, density) are calculated based on tabular data on the properties of individual components and their content in the mixture. When calculating the quality indicators of fuels that do not obey the additivity law (for example, fractional composition), along with the characteristic of the component itself, it is necessary to consider the influence of components of a different structure on it. For this purpose, the method of regression analysis is used, which allows to evaluate the contribution of the properties of individual components or their groups to the general property of the system.

1. GOST 52714. Benziny avtomobilnye. Opredelenie individualnogo i gruppovogo uglevodorodnogo sostava metodom kapillyarnoy gazovoy khromatografii [Motor gasolines. Determination of individual and group hydrocarbon composition by capillary gas chromatography method].
2. GOST R EN 12916. Nefteprodukty. Opredelenie tipov aromaticheskikh uglevodorodov v srednikh distillyatakh. Metod vysokoeffektivnoy zhidkostnoy khromatografii s detektirovaniem po koeffitsientu refraktsii [Petroleum products. Determination of aromatic hydrocarbon types in middle distillates. High performance liquid chromatography method with refractive index detection].
3. GOST R 52063. Nefteprodu zhidkie. Opredelenie gruppovogo uglevodorodnogo sostava metodom fluorestsentnoy indikatornoy adsorbtsii [Liquid petroleum products. Test method of hydrocarbon types by fluorescent indicator adsorption].
4. Grinberg A.A., Leonteva S.A., Lisitsin D.M. and others. Application of the detector of unsaturated bonds in capillary chromatography for the analysis of jet fuels [Primenenie detektora nenasyshchennykh svyazey kapillyarnoy khromatografii dlya analiza reaktivnykh topliv]. Zhurnal analiticheskoy khimii - Journal of Analytical Chemistry, v. 35, pp. 20422044.

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DOI: 10.32758/2071-5951-2019-0-06-33-36

Rheological properties of low-temperature greases with anti-friction additives

Glyadaev D. Yu., Mityagin V.A. Remorov B.S., Chulkov I.P., Zemlyanaya T.P.

FAE The 25th State Research Institute of Chemmotology of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, JSC VNII NP

Keywords: greases, anti-friction additives, rheological properties, low-temperature properties.

It is shown that reliable operation of modern ground equipment at extremely low temperatures requires the use of high-quality low-temperature lubricants. To ensure high tribological characteristics of such lubricants, it is necessary to use individual additives in their composition or their different compositions. The influence of the concentration of antifriction additives on the rheological, operational and low-temperature properties of greases prepared on different dispersion media (mineral and semi-synthetic basis) is investigated. Evaluation of rheological and operational properties of lubricants was carried out by standard methods to determine: evaporation; tensile strength and thermal hardening; colloidal stability. Low-temperature properties were evaluated by methods of determining the starting moments in ball and roller bearings. Studied based on rheological and performance properties on the concentration of anti-friction additives. It is established that the majority of solid additives contribute to the increase of torques. The data confirming the positive effect of ultrafine tetraftorethylene (UPTFE) powder on low-temperature properties, including lubricants containing a synthetic component of the dispersion medium, are presented. The possibility of improving the low-temperature properties of lubricants by introducing ultrafine tetraftorethylene powder is shown.

1. ASTM D147807. Metod opredeleniya stragivayushchego i ustnovivshegosya krutyashchikh momentov plasnichnykh smazok v sharikovykh podshypnikakh pri nizkikh temperaturakh [Method for determination of straining and steady-state torques of greases in ball bearings at low temperatures].
2. ASTM D 469303. Metod otsenki maksimalnogo krutyashchego momenta plastichnykh smazok v rolikovykh podshypnikakh pri nizkikh temperaturakh [Method for estimating maximum torque of greases in roller bearings at low temperatures].
3. Fuks I.G. Dobavki k plastishchnym smazkam [Additives to greases]. Moscov: Chemistry, 1982, 248 p.

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DOI: 10.32758/2071-5951-2019-0-06-19-29

Features of construction and prospects of development of Haematology motor oils

Lashkhi V.L. A.L.Chudinovskikh

Firm Nami-Khim Ltd.

Keywords: chemmotology, motor oil, internal combustion engine (ice), the methods of qualification.

Peculiarities of chemotology motor oils and solutions tasks this section of chemmotology. Specificity of setting and carrying out works in this field of knowledge, and building the actual methodological base of chemmotology motor oils as a universal tool.

... | 894 |

DOI: 10.32758/2071-5951-2019-0-06-19-29

Problems of the Estimation of Fuels and Lubricants Performance Property Level Informativeness Enhancement

Pimenov Yu.M., Sereda V.A., Ulitko A.V.

FAE The 25th State Research Institute of Chemmotology of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation

Keywords: fuel and lubricating materials, performance property, chemmotology process, technical equipment, operation activity, model analysis, experiment, informativeness, mathematical model, forecasting.

The paper presents the current issues of the information quantity and quality enhancement when evaluating fuels and lubricants performance properties at time of laboratory bench testing due to the lack of information currently available to forecast the potential propensity of fuels and lubricants to be transformed at the life cycle stages and to make a decision for application of fuels and lubricants in technical equipment.
The problems that reduce the informativeness of properties estimation at the stage of laboratory and bench tests are shown. They are related to insufficient perfection of test methods of fuels and lubricants in terms of conformity (similarity) between test method conditions and conditions that actually affect fuels and lubricants at the life cycle stages; poor adaptability of a number of performance property characteristic values of fuels and lubricants to forecast the technical equipment operation performance; the absence or limited application of quantitative prognostic mathematical models of the studied processes of the composition and properties changing of fuels and lubricants.
The tendencies of development of the degree of conformity increasing between the model and full-scale results in chemmotology based on the formation of stable feedbacks between conditions (methods) and results of tests of fuels and lubricants at all stages of the test system are considered. The most effective direction suggested to be research practice (tests) by methods and means specifically designed and developed to assess and forecast the level of performance properties of fuels and lubricants in various technical equipment operating conditions based on the functional simulation of chemmotology processes with application in the research practice (tests) and processing the results of methodological techniques ensuring the extraction of maximum information about the properties of fuels and lubricants and minimizing the time and resources.
The efficient and economical method of enhancing the estimation of performance properties level informativeness was suggested. It ensures the quantitative generalized (integral) expression and comparison of the potential propensity of fuels and lubricants for transformations coming out in different ways depending on the operation conditions and the engineering construction. This method involves the laboratory- and bench-scale testing of fuels and lubricants that implement functionally similar test conditions in a physical model and full-scale objects, using of the mathematical theory of the design of experiments that allows to maximize the amount of information about the properties of fuels and lubricants and significantly reduce the cost of the experiment.
The simulation results of the proposed method allow entering the performance functional of fuels and lubricants quality according to the estimated performance properties integral assessment characterizing the potential propensity of fuels and lubricants to transformations in both the range of the determining factors and in the narrow ranges for selected factors.
The numerical values of integral estimates make it possible to reveal the relative advantages of a sample of fuels and lubricants vs. another in terms of a specific performance property. As a measure of concordance of the model and full-scale test results (values of the properties of fuels and lubricants and performance parameters of equipment) to confirm the performance properties estimation results informativeness enhancement it was proposed to use a sample correlation coefficient. The examples of evaluation results using the new method when estimating the properties of diesel fuel and gasoline are provided.
The solution of the analyzed problems through the use of the suggested method of fuels and lubricants performance property level estimation informativeness enhancement will allow the cost reduction of the validation of requirements for performance properties primarily of new fuels and lubricants and will enhance the efficiency of making the decision for their application in advanced technical equipment.

1. Teoreticheskie osnovy chimmotologii [Theoretical Foundations of Chemmotology]. Bratkov A.A. ed. oscow: Khimiya, 1985, 320 p.
2. GOST 2609884. Nefteprodukty. Terminy i opredeleniya. [Petroleum Products. Terms and Conditions]. oscow: Izdatelstvo standartov, 1984, 14 p.
3. Gureev .., Seryogin .P., Azev V.S. Kvalifikazionnye metody ispytaniy neftyanych topliv [Hydrocarbon Fuels Qualification Testing Methods]. oscow: Khimiya, 1984, 200 p.
4. Danilov A.M. Primenenie prisadok v toplivakh: Spravochnik. [Additives Applications in Fuels: Handbook]. 3-rd ed, adv. St.-Petersburg: Khimizdat, 2010, 368 p.
5. Budarov I.P. Issledovanie isparyaemosti motornykh topliv pri khranenii [Investigation of Motor Fuels Evaporability in Storage Conditions: dissertation. oscow: NII GSM MOD, 1958, 225 p.
6. Gureev .. Primenenie avtomobilnykh benzinov [Use of Automobile Gasolines]. oscow: Khimiya, 1972, 364 p.
7. STO 08151164-1072011. Benziny avtomobilnye i aviatcionnye. Metod opredeleniya poter ot ispareniya [Automobile and Aviation Gasolines. Method of Estimation of Evaporation Losses]. oscow, 2011, 15 p.
8. Pat 1642383 USSR. Sposob opredeleniya poter benzinov ot ispareniya [Method of Estimation of Evaporation Losses]. 1991.
9. Emelianov V.E. Set of Methods of Qualification Testing of Automotive Fuels Requires Improvement [Kompleksy metodov kvalifikatcionnoy otsenki motornykh topliv nuzhdayutsya v obnovlenii]. Mir nefteproduktov. Vestnik neftyanykh kompaniy World of Oil Products. The Oil Companies Bulletin, 2007, 4, p. 2425.
10. Bunakov B.M., Pervushin A.N. Facultative Certification of Automotive Fuels, Lubricants and Special Fluids [Dobrovolnaya sistema sertifikatcii avtomobilnykh topliv, smazochnykh materialov i spetcialnykh zhidkostey. Sistema AAI GSM]. Mir nefteproduktov. Vestnik neftyanykh kompaniy World of Oil Products. The Oil Companies Bulletin, 2008, 8, p. 3436.
11. Krein S.E., Zaslavskiy Yu.S., Voinov N.P. Smazochnoe maslo i dvigatel [Lubricating Oil and Engine]. oscow-Leningrad.: Gostoptekhizdat, 1952, 199 p.
12. ostin A.K., Pugachev B.P., Kochinev Yu.Yu. Rabota dizeley v usloviyakh ekspluatatcii [Diesel Engines Performance in Operational Conditions]. Leningrad: Mashinostroenie, 1989, 284 p.
13. Gureev .., Azev V.S., Kamfer G.. Topliva dlya dizeley. Svoystva I primenenie [Fues for Diesel Engines. Properties and Applications. oscow: Khimiya, 1993, 336 p.
14. Gureev .., Fuks I.G., Lashkhi V.L. Khimmotologiya [Chemmotology]. oscow: Khimiya, 1986, 368 p.
15. Smazochnye materially: Antifriktcionnye i protivoiznosnye svoystva. Metody ispytaniy. Spravochnik [Lubricating Materials: Antifriction and Antiwear Properties. Testing Methods: A Handbook] / R.. Matveevskiy, V.L. Lashkhi, I.. Buyanovskiy ed. oscow: ashinostroenie, 1989, 224 p.
16. Spravochnik po tribotekhnike. T 1 [Handbook on Tribology]. . Hedba, .V. Chichinadze (eds.). V.1. Theoretical Foundations. oscow: ashinostroenie, 1989, 400 p.
17. Papok K.K. Kachestvo i primenenie aviatopliv i masel [Quality and Application of Aviafuels and Lubricating Oils]. oscow: Editorial and Publishing Department of Aeroflot, 1936, 192 p.
18. Papok K.K., Ragozin N.A. Slovar po toplivam, maslam, smazkam, prisadkam i spetcialnym zhidkostyam. Khimmotologicheskiy slovar [Dictionary on Fuels, Lubrication Oils, Greases, Additives and Special Fluids. Chemmotological Dictionary. 4-th ed]. oscow: Khimiya, 1975, 392 p.
19. Papok .. Khimmotologiya topliv i smazochnykh masel [Chemmotology of Fuels and Lubrication Oils]. oscow: Voenizdat, 1981, 192 p.
20. Gulin E.I., Yakubo D.P., Somov V.A., Chechot I.M. Spravochnik po goryuche-smazochnym materialam v sudovoy tekhnike [Handbook for Fuels, Lubricants and Associated Products in Shipping. 2nd ed.]. Leningrad: Sudostroyenie, 1987, 224 p.
21. Bolshakov G.F. Fiziko-khimicheskie osnovy primeneniya topliv i masel. Teoreticheskie aspekty khimmotologii [Physical and Chemical Foundations of Application of Fuels and Lubricants. Theoretical Aspects of Chemmotology]. Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1987, 209 p.
22. Pimenov Yu.M. Metody modelirovaniya khimmotiligicheskikh protcessov. Uchebnoe posobie [Methods of Modelling of Chemmotological Processes: Study Guide]. St.-Petersburg: VATT, 2000, 179 p.
23. Pimenov Yu.M. Perspectives of Chemmotology Improvement [Perspektivy razvitiya khimmotologii]. Mir nefteproduktov. Vestnik neftyanykh kompaniy World of Oil Products. The Oil Companies Bulletin, 2005, 6, p. 18-22.
24. Pimenov Yu.M. Osnovy sistemnogo analiza i modelirovaniya v khimmotologii. Uchebnoe posobie [Foundations of Systems Analysis and Modeling in Chemmotology: Study Guide]. St.-Petersburg: VATT, 1999, 268 p.
25. Pimenov Yu.M., Ulitko A.V. Process Modeling of High-Temperature Deposit Formation under Diesel Fuel Combustion [Modelirovanie protsessa obrazovaniya vysokotemperaturnykh otlozheniy pri sgoranii topliv v usloviyakh dizelya]. Mir nefteproduktov. Vestnik neftyanykh kompaniy World of Oil Products. The Oil Companies Bulletin, 2018, 7, p. 31-41.
26. Pimenov Yu.M., Ulitko A.V., Kvashnin A.B. Fuel Supply Process Modeling for Overland Machine Diesel Engines at Low Temperatures [Modelirovanie protsessa podachi topliv dlya dizeley nazemnoy tekhniki v usloviyakh nizkikh temperature]. Mir nefteproduktov. Vestnik neftyanykh kompaniy World of Oil Products. The Oil Companies Bulletin, 2018, 11, p. 3444.
27. Pimenov Yu.M., Sereda V.A. Automotive Fuels Evaporation Discharge Process Modelling Under Conditions of Longterm Storage [Modelirovanie protsessa ispareniya motornykh topliv v usloviyakh dlitelnogo khraneniya]. Mir nefteproduktov. Vestnik neftyanykh kompaniy World of Oil Products. The Oil Companies Bulletin, 2019, 2, p. 2635.
28. Fedorov V.V. Teoriya optimalnogo eksperimenta (planirovanie regressionnykh eksperimentov) [Theory of Optimal Experiments]. Moscow: Academic Press, 1971, 312 p.
29. Box G.E.P., Draper N.R. Response Surfaces, Mixtures, and Ridge Analysis. 2nd ed. - John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007, 880 p.
30. Montgomery D.C. Design and Analysis of Experiments. 9th ed. - John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017, 734 .
31. Box G.E.P., Behnken D.W. Some new three level designs for the study of quantitative variables. - Technometrics, 1960, Vol.2, 4, p. 455-475.
32. Hartley H.O. Smallest composite designs for quadratic response surfaces. - Biometrics, 1959, v.15, 14, p. 611-624.
33. Pimenov Yu.M. Osnovy planirovaniya eksperimenta v khimmotologii: Uchebnoe posobie [Basics of Planning of Experiments in Chemmotology: Study Guide]. St.-Petersburg: VATT, 2000, 186 p.

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DOI: 10.32758/2071-5951-2019-0-06-14-18

An applying of terms method and procedure in chemmotology

Shatalov K.V. Seryogin E.P.

E-mail: 1499090@mail.ru

FAE The 25th State Research Institute of Chemmotology of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation

Keywords: Chemmotology; measurement method; measurement procedure; analytical technique; analytical procedure, test method; Test procedure.

Chemmotology as an independent field of knowledge doesnt have a unequivocal term for determination applying methods of investigation.
Terms with comparable essence referred to related subjects that are analytical chemistry, metrology and qualimetry have been discussed to substantiate a correct application of terminology.
In the field of analytical chemistry, it has been commonly used two terms with different meanings, which are analytical technique and analytical procedure [5]. The term of analytical procedure is substantially broader than analytical technique term. Analytical procedure can be considered as the sum of three components: analytical technique + documented procedure + requirements to accuracy of results obtained.
In the field of metrology it has been widely used two similar terms: measurement method and measurement procedure [3,6]. The terms both are often used at the same context, however the main difference of these terms is due to measurement procedure includes the requirements to measurements accuracy in comparison with measurement method. Consequently, measurement procedure enables to get the results with warranted accuracy.
Qualimetry has the test method and test procedure terms [9]. The term of test procedure is significantly broader than term of test method likewise in the analytical chemistry field.
It is necessary to understand the differences between the terms analysis, measurement and test for correct applying of these ones. The individual subject undergoes to measurement or analysis and the results of measurement (analysis) are related only on the subject. The batches of products that are consist of plenty of single subjects undergo to tests. The results of measurements or analysis of single subjects from the batch (according to the some common principles) are spreading to the whole batch.
If the procedure includes the sampling rules, thereby it will be transformed to test procedure from analysis (measurement) procedure. The evolution of the term of test procedure is demonstrated on the figure 1.
The comparative analysis of the terms applying in the field of analytical chemistry, metrology and qualimetry is showing that the analogous approach to determination of terms method and procedure both is being used that is method is the component of the procedure. The main difference between procedure and method is of obtaining the result with warranted accuracy is ensured by the documented procedure implementation. Simultaneously the differences between terms of analysis (measurement) procedure and test procedure are only of the second one in addition contains the sampling rules which permit to spread the results of analysis (measurements) of the individual sample from the batch to the whole batch of products.
In fact, the petroleum products undergo just tests (not analysis or measurements) due to the features of their production and utilization. Therefore, it is necessary to apply the test procedure term to the documents regulated an order of estimation of petroleum products quality.

1. Papok K.K., Ragozin N.A. Slovar po toplivam, maslam, smazkam, prisadkam i specialnim zhidkostyam (khimmotologicheskiy slovar). [Dictionary on fuels, oils, lubricants, additives and special liquids (chemmotology dictionary)]. Issue 4, rev. and sup., M.: Chemistry. 1975, 392 p.
2. Goriuchie, smazochnie materiali: enciclopedicheskyi tolkovyi slovar-spravochnik. [Fuel, lubricants: encyclopedic explanatory dictionary-handbook]. Issue 2, under the edition of V.M. Shkolnikov. M.: Publishing center Techinform, 2010, 756 p.
3. RMG 29-2013 Gosudarstvennaya sistema obespecheniya edinstva izmereniy. Metrologiya. Osnovnie termini i opredeleniya. [State system for ensuring the uniformity of measurements. Metrology. Basic terms and definitions]. Moscow, Standartinform, 2014 - 60 p.
4. Grishin N.N., Sereda V.V. Enciclopediya khimmotologii. [Chemmotology encyclopedia]. M.: Issue Feather, 2016 960 p.
5. GOST R 52361 2005 Kontrol obekta analyticheskyi. Termini i opredeleniya. [Analytical control of the object. Terms and definitions].
6. Mezhdunarodnyi slovar po metrologii: osnovnie i obschie ponyatiya i sootvetstvyiuschie termini. [International dictionary on metrology: the main and common definitions and relevant terms]. Translate from English and French / VNIIM im. D.I. Mendeleeva, BelGIM. Issue 2, corr. SPb.: NPO Professional 2010. 82 p.
7. GOST R ISO 5725-12002 Tochnost (pravilnost i precizionnost) metodov i rezultatov izmerenyi. Chast 1. Osnovnie polozheniya i opredeleniya. [Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measurement methods and results. Part 1. General principles and definitions]. Moscow, Standartinform, 2006 - 31 p.
8. RMG 61-2010 Gosudarstvennaya sistema obespecheniya edinstva izmereniy. Pokazateli tochnosti, pravilnosti, precizionnosti metodic kolichestvennogo khimicheskogo analiza. Metodi ocenki. [State system for ensuring the uniformity of measurements. Accuracy, trueness and precision measures of the procedures for quantitative chemical analysis. Methods of evaluation]. Moscow, Standartinform, 2012 - 62 p.
9. GOST 16504-81 Systema gosudarstvennih ispitanyi produkcii. Ispitaniya i kontrol kachestva produkcii. Osnovnie termini i opredeleniya. [The state system of testing products. Product test and quality inspection. General terms and definitions]. Moscow, Standartinform, 2011 - 22 p.

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DOI: 10.32758/2071-5951-2019-0-06-4-13

Chimmotology is 55


V. V. Sereda, N. N. Grishin

Keywords:Chimmotology, petroleum, oil and lubricants (POL) application, POL performance characteristics, the methodology of chimmotology, scientific schools.

The chemmotology development results, which include its own methodology, scientific schools and areas of research, theoretical aspects, scientific works and practical results, have been summed up. The role of chemmotology in enhancing the service life of machines has been noted. The problems of chemmotology have been indicated, the most important of which is the formulation of its own theoretical background. The priority chemmotology research area is focused; it includes establishment of the stable quantitative connections between fuels&lubricants from one side and reliability in operation of machines and mechanisms, where they are applied, from another one. The specified connection, if and when the relevant knowledge is accumulated, has been carried out in a form of desired level regulation of fuels&lubricants operation properties, excluding any of machine faulty operation. The tasks of chemmotology, which can be conventionally divided into three groups, have been determined. The first taskgroup comprises the fuels&lubricants quality optimization, providing the fullest correspondence of their operation properties to the requirements of machine performance and fuels&lubricants quality evaluation (application of new components, additives, improvers, production technologies, etc.) and extension of their resources at the expense of alternative fuels (such as, hydrogen, liquid and compressed flammable gas fuels, alcohols and alcohol-gasoline blends, and synthetic liquid fuels made of coals, shale, peat and others), lubricants (simple and compound ethers, polysiloxanes, fluorocarbons) and others. Solving the tasks of the second taskgroup has been deployed to the enhancement of effective application of fuels&lubricants under operation conditions. This taskgroup includes the development and scientific justification of principles for classification and unification of flow rate standards and time periods for their storage, interchangeability, compatibility, remanufacturing techniques of improper fuel quality, reprocessing and recycling of the used lubricants and special-purpose technical fluids. Theoretical studies of physical, chemical, colloidal, thermodynamic and electrochemical processes, which occur in the chemmotology system machines fuels&lubricants operation under the effect of various external factors (temperature, loads, rolling and sliding velocities, catalytic effect of metals, corrosive media, radiation etc.), take an important place in this work. By now, the fundamental theories of oxygen, combustion, adhesion, wear-outs, corrosion, etc., as the findings of chemmotology studies, have been adapted for the above-mentioned processes. The third taskgroup comprises the development and improvement of estimation methods for the fuels&lubricants operation properties. This taskgroup includes the investigations intended to improvement of fuels&lubricants quality control methods.

... | 3569 |

DOI: 10.32758/2071-5951-2019-0-05-38-42


The study of temperature parameters of the engine oil mixture

Kowalski B.I., Afanasov V.I., Shram V.G.

Siberian Federal University
Institute of Oil and Gas

The results of probe of temperature parameters of operability of the Toyota Castle 10W-30 SL mineral engine oil and its mixture from 20% of partially synthetic Kixx Gold 10W-40 SJ engine oil are presented. Temperatures of the beginning of process of oxidation and evaporation of oils at a termostatirovaniye are determined and critical temperatures of these processes.
Key words: optical density, rate of evaporation, an indicator of oxidative stability, the temperature of beginning of oxidation and evaporation, critical temperature.

1. Koval'skiy B.I., Bezborodov Yu.N., Yanovich V.S., Malysheva N.N., Yudin A.V. The results of the control the thermal-oxidative stability transmission oils of different base [Rezul'taty kontrolya termookislitel'noy stabil'nosti transmissionnykh masel razlichmoy bazovoy osnovy]. Kontrol'. Diagnostika - Testing. Diagnostics, 2014, no. 4, pp. 74-76.
2. Koval'skiy B.I., Sokol'nikov A.N., Petrov O.N., Shram V.G., Agrovichenko D.V. Control method of processes of oxidation of engine oils of various basic basis [Metod kontrolya protsessov okislenuya motornykh masel razlichnoy bazovoy osnovy]. Mir nefteproduktov. Vestnik neftyanykh kovpaniy - World of oil products. The Oil Companies' Bulletin, 2016, no. 2, pp. 21-26.
3. Kravsova E.G., Kowal'skiy B.I., Bezborodov Yu.N., Lysyannikova N.N., Kovaleva M.A. The results of research of influence of steel ShH15 on oxidation process and antiwear propertties of the rngine oil Spectrol Super Universal 15W-40 SF/CC [Rezul'taty issledovaniya vliyaniya stali ShH15 na protsessy okisleniya I protiviiznosnye svoystva motornogo masla Spectrol Super Universal 15W-40 SF/CC]. Kontrol'. Diagnostika - Testing. Diagnostics, 2015, no. 11, pp. 68-71.
4. Koval'skiy B.I., Sokol'nikov A.N., Bezborodov Yu.N., Petrov O.N., Shram V.G. Control of thermo-oxidative stability and anti-wear properties of motor oils [Kontrol' termookislitel'noy stabil'nosti I protivoiznosnykh svoystv motornykh masel]. Vestnik mashinostroeniya - Mechanical engineering' Bulletin, 2015, no. 6, pp. 17-23.
5. Koval'skiy B.I., Bezborodov Yu.N., Ermilov .. The research of the effect of oxidation products on the viscosity- temperature characteristics of motor oils [Vliyanie produktov okisleniya na vyazkostno-temperaturnye kharakteristiki motornykh masel]. Mir nefteproduktov. Vestnik neftyanykh kovpaniy - World of oil products. The Oil Companies' Bulletin, 2017, no. 1, pp. 20-23.
6. Koval'skiy B.I., Putovit P.Yu., Shram V.G., Petrov O.N. Method for monitoring the temperature performance of engine oils [Metod kontrolya temperaturnykh parametrov rabotosposobnosti motornykh masel]. Mir nefteproduktov. Vestnik neftyanykh kovpaniy - World of oil products. The Oil Companies' Bulletin, 2018, no. 3, pp. 34-36.
7. Koval'skiy B.I., Agrovichenko D.V., Shram V.G., Petrov O.N. Method of controlling the influence of the processes of thermal degradation on the oxidation and tribological properties of oxidized mineral motor oils [Metod kontrolya protsessov temperaturnoy destruktsii na protsessy okisleniya I tribotekhnicheskie kharakteristiki mineral'nykh motornykh masel]. Izvestiya TulGTU, 2014, no. 11, pp. 216-225.

... | 3842 |

621.436, 662/.9, 665.6/.7
DOI: 10.32758/2071-5951-2019-0-05-32-37

Impact of 2-Ethylhexyl Nitrate on Flammability and Lubricity of Fuels Intended for Jet Engines When Used in Diesel Engines

Belov I.V., Likhterova N.M., Volgin S.N., Matin M.E.

FAE The 25th State Research Institute of Himmotology, Ministry of Defence of Russian Federation

Keywords: aviation kerosene, diesel fuel, diesel engine, lubricity, flammability, ignition promotor.

A promising direction for the expansion of diesel fuel resources, especially in the Arctic and the Far North, is the use of aviation kerosene in diesel engines.
Due to insufficient ignition and low lubricity of aviation kerosene, their application in a diesel engine is limited.
One of the ways to improve the ignition and lubricity of aviation kerosene, when used in a diesel engine, is the adding of cetane and anti-wearing additives applied in industrial production of diesel fuels.
The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (ignition activator) on the ignition and lubricity of aviation kerosene when used in a diesel engine.
As the objects under study, 14 TS-1 and RT fuel samples produced at Russian refineries were selected: TS-1 straight-run fuels (samples 1-5), TS-1 fuel mixtures (samples 6-10), hydrogenation fuels RT and TS-1 (samples 11-14).
As a result of experimental studies it was found that the adding of ignition promoter at concentration of 0,4% by weight increases the cetane number of all 14 tested samples of TS-1 and RT fuels by 6-8 units. At that time, the lubricity of TC-1 fuel non-containing additives deteriorates, while the lubricity of additive-containing TS-1 and RT fuels increases.
The deterioration of the lubricity of TS-1 straight-run fuels up to 12,7% after the adding of 2-ethylhexyl nitrate is due to the presence of heteroatomic (of mercaptans, sulfides) and resinous compounds or adsorption resins, which under the effect of the ignition promoter are oxidized to hydrocarbon-insoluble compounds, and when it enters the friction zone, they intensify the process of abrasive wear, thereby increasing the value of the diameter of the wear spot.
The adding of the ignition promoter into TC-1 fuel mixtures containing both straight-run and hydrodemercaptanized, hydrotreated and hydrocracked kerosene fractions with antioxidant and anti-wear additives, unlike TS-1 straight-run fuels, enhances the lubricity by an average of 19,2%.
Enhancing the lubricity of TS-1 fuel mixtures (samples 6, 8-10) is due to the presence of antioxidant additive in their composition, which interacts with active radicals formed during the decomposition of 2-ethylhexyl nitrate, thereby preventing the acceleration of the liquid-phase oxidation of sulfur compounds and resinous components.
The results obtained for TS-1 fuel mixtures (samples 6, 8-19), similar to RT and TS-1 hydrogenation fuels containing an antioxidant additive (sample 11-14), enhance the lubricity up to 15,5%.
Thus, on the basis of the performed experimental studies, it was established that with the adding of different production technologies of ignition promoter based on 2-ethylhexyl nitrate at concentration of 0,4% by weight into TS-1 and RT fuels, the cetane number increases in a narrow range of values and reaches the required rate while the lubricity of TS-1 straight-run fuels and fuel mixtures, non-containing additives, deteriorates on average by 14,8%, while the diameter of the wear spot reaches the required values.
To ensure the compliance of modified aviation kerosene based on TS-1 and RT fuels to the required level of lubricity, the anti-wear additive application is required.

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... | 7226 |

DOI: 10.32758/2071-5951-2019-0-05-27-31

Alkyl-substituted complex ethers of cyclic polyoles as a basis and component of lubricant oils

Mamedyarov M.A., Gurbanov G.N., Yusiphova L.M.

The Institute of Petrochemical Processes named after Yu.G. Mamedaliyev

Keywords: esterification reaction, cyclic neopolyol ethers, lubricating oils, operational properties, correlation dependence.

The esterification reaction of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylolcyclohexanol (TMCH) with aliphatic monocarboxylic acids C5-C9 and mixtures of fatty acids fr. C5-C6 were synthesized symmetric and asymmetric esters and studied their physicochemical and operational properties. The synthesized esters are colorless liquids with high boiling points, their yield is 8290% by weight from the theoretical.
The structure of the synthesized TMCH esters was confirmed by IR and NMR spectroscopy, as well as by determining the molecular weight, acid and ester numbers.
When determining the viscosity-temperature properties, they were found to have a viscosity at 100 10,2810,71 mm2/s, high flash points 281315 and a viscosity index of 124135 units, low pour points -38-47C.
After determining the thermo-oxidative stability, it was revealed that they have low evaporation (0.33-0.90% by wt.), the amount of precipitation insoluble in isooctane is 0.0020.020 wt%. Minor corrosion of aluminum alloy AK-4 (0.0090.040 mg/cm2) and steel -15 (0.0160.060 mg/cm2). After oxidation the acid number of diesters is small 0.150.96 mgKOH/g.
When determining the lubricity of esters, it was established that they have good lubricating characteristics: wear diameter indicator Di 0.60.8 mm, critical load, Pk 680830 Newton.
In this work, the correlation relationship between the chemical structure and performance characteristics of the synthesized esters was also studied.
When comparing the obtained results, it can be seen that asymmetric esters are superior to symmetric counterparts in viscosity-temperature and thermal-oxidative and lubricating properties, which are explained by the structure and location of ether groups.
As a result of the research, it was found that the esters of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylolcyclohexanol compared with the esters of pentaerythritol have good viscosity-temperature, thermal-oxidative and lubricating characteristics and can be recommended as a basis and component of new lubricating oils.

1. Mamedyarov M.A., Alieva F.Kh., Gurbanov G.N. Sinteticheskie smazochnye masla (struktura i svoystva) [Synthetic lubricating oils (structure and properties)]. Moscow: Nauchniy mir, 2017, 336 p.
2. Mamedyarov M.A, Gurbanov G.N., Kuli-zadeh F.A. Functionally-substituted cyclic neopolyol complex esters - high-temperature components for lubricating oils [Funktsional'no-zameschennye kompleksnye efiry tsiklicheskikh neopolyolov vysokotemperaturnye komponenty smazochnykh masel]. Protsessy neftekhimii i neftepererabotki - Petrochemical and refining processes, 2015, no. 1, pp.15-20.
3. Mamedyarov M.A., Gurbanov G.N., Guliyeva E.M., Suleymanova G.N., Gulu-zade F.A. The synthesis of vicinal substituting cyclohexane ether complexes and their study as lubricants meeting modern. National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan. Reports, 2015, no. 1, pp. 47-51.
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7. Pat. I 20140063 (zerbaijan), 2014.

... | 4413 |

DOI: 10.32758/2071-5951-2019-0-05-22-26

Multifunctional alcohol-essential additives to diesel fuels

Abbasov V.M., Mammadova T.A., Mammadkhanova S.A., Abbasov A.R., Mamedova E.I.

Institute of Petrochemical Processes by the name Yu.G. Mammadaliyev

Azerbaijan State University of Oil and Industry

Keywords: commercial diesel fuel, ethanol, emulsifier, exhaust gas composition, carboxylic acid esters, propylene oxide

As an oxygen-containing additive to diesel fuels, esters of natural carboxylic acids and propylene oxide (CAEPO) have been studied. It was revealed that their addition to the composition of commercial diesel fuel (CDF) to 5% of the mass. allows the improve of the compounds quality and the composition of the exhaust gases on their using. For the 5% high-temperature compounds with TDT, the increase in flash point is 3C, decreasing of freezing temperature is 20C (to -45C), also there was observed the decreasing of coking behavior and the content of aromatic hydrocarbons. Improving the composition of exhaust gases when using 3-5% compounds of the CAEPO with CDF is revealed to the decreasing of carbon monoxides content by 20-30%, while reducing the content of sulfur oxides by 0.3-1.5% mass.
The qualitative indicators of commercial diesel fuel with up to 5% ethanol in it (95% and 99.9% wt) in pure form and with using the CAEPO as a surface-active emulsifier at temperatures 0-25C, by mixing the mixtures with a speed of 600 rev/min and using an ultrasonic generator UIP2000hd.
It was revealed that the use of dehydrated ethanol in the composition of diesel fuel up to 3% mass at room temperature allows to preserve the transparency of obtained compositions within 30 days. The increase of ethanol content in the composition of diesel fuel up to 5% mass reduces the sustainability of the mixture to 18 days. The decrease of the storage temperature of the obtained compounds to 0 C leads to the decreasing of stability period of the compounds up to 10-5 days for 1-5% ethanol content in diesel fuel composition, respectively.
The using of watered ethanol (95%), even during its 1% content in diesel fuel with using an agitator with turnover speed of 600 rpm an unstable emulsion is formed, which stratifies after a few minutes. However, when mixing the obtained compounds using an ultrasonic sonotrode, slightly coalescing mixtures are forming, the stability of which is no more than 10 days at room temperature and up to 5 days at low temperature.
To make the resistant to 3% ethanol mixture, 1% emulsifier was added to the TDT, such as CAEPO. The obtained compound retains the stability for 25 days from the date of preparation. The reduction of carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides and nitrogen in the composition of the exhaust gases of this mixture is 28, 24 and 16%, respectively.

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... | 4200 |

DOI: 10.32758/2071-5951-2019-0-05-16-21

Investigation resins of products hydrocracking of deasfalted of goudrons

Rashidova S.Yu.

The Institute of Petrochemical Processes named after Yu.G. Mamedaliyev

Keywords: hydrocracking, goudron, deasfalte, hydrogenate, resins.

The hydrocracking of deasfaltion of goudrons is carried out on molybdena-cobolt-aluminum catalyst at temperatures 400, 425 and 450C. Hydrocarbon composition of factions of hydrogenizates, boiling away higher 400 got at the indicated temperatures of hydrocracking, is investigational. It is certain that at the temperature of process of hydrocracking of 450 at this faction maintenance of heavy aromatic hydrocarbons increased from 3,78 to 25,42% about to comparing to deasfaltes, and also maintenance of resins went down from 12,57 to 4,62%. Thus at the temperature of process of 450 maintenance methane-naphthenic hydrocarbons went down considerably. In resins increases nitrogen content extraction from product hydrocracking, but sulfhur and oxygen decreases in comparison with resins of deasfaltes. It is necessary to mark that at this temperature of hydrocracking faction of hydrogenizates, boiling away higher 400 was exposed to the most changes.
On the basis of determination of element composition by means of analyzer of Perkin Elmer-240 and molecular mass of cryoscopic method is expect the empiric formulas of resins. The averages of the molecular masses of resins in hydrogenizates are comparatively small and are at the level of 420-503, i.e. diminish with the increase of temperature of hydrocracking. The degree of deficit of protons also diminishes both in resins in initial deasfaltes and in resins of hydrogenizates with the increase of temperature of hydrocracking.
On the bases of PMR spectr of is defined higher aromatization resins of hydrogenizates, on the whole production hydrocracking at temperature 450C. With an increase the temperatures of hydrocracking to 450 resins, distinguished from hydrogenizates, contain unsubstituted for more protons (from 4,3 to 18,1%) related to the aromatic carbon atoms, and also entering in the complement of groups in -positions to the aromatic kernels (from 14,5 to the 27,5%) comparing to deasfaltes. In addition, they are characterized by the less stake of atoms of in other saturated fragments of molecules more remote from an aromatic kernel. This confirms the higher aromaticity of the hydrogenated resin obtained at a hydrocracking temperature of 450C.
The calculated data is indicated decrease polycyclic structure of hydrogenate compare with feedstock deasfaltizate molecular resins of hydrogenate included on the average one or two group (block) structure, including heterocycles, what everyone condense one-two aromatic ring.

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... | 4929 |

DOI: 10.32758/2071-5951-2019-0-05-9-15

The development of a mathematical model for determination the anti-knock properties of gasoline with the addition of oxygen-containing octane-increasing additiv

Babkin K.D., Makarov A.D.
Gubkin Russian state University of oil and gas

Keywords: oxygenates, anti-knock resistance, octane number, methyl-tert-amyl ether, methyl-tert-butyl ether, mathematical model.

The necessity of mathematical model for calculation of anti-knock characteristics of oxygenates for their competent planning and involvement in commercial gasoline is proved. The developed model of calculation of the octane number of blending research and motor methods for MTAE and MTBE. High convergence of simulation results and laboratory tests is shown. The contribution of different classes of hydrocarbons to the intensity of intermolecular interactions in the mixture of oxygenate and base gasoline is described by mathematical methods.
The necessity of mathematical model for calculation of anti-knock characteristics of oxygenates for their competent planning and involvement in commercial gasoline is proved. The developed model of calculation of the octane number of blending research and motor methods for MTAE and MTBE. High convergence of simulation results and laboratory tests is shown. The contribution of different classes of hydrocarbons to the intensity of intermolecular interactions in the mixture of oxygenate and base gasoline is described by mathematical methods.
The necessity of mathematical model for calculation of anti-knock characteristics of oxygenates for their competent planning and involvement in commercial gasoline is proved. The developed model of calculation of the octane number of blending research and motor methods for MTAE and MTBE. High convergence of simulation results and laboratory tests is shown. The contribution of different classes of hydrocarbons to the intensity of intermolecular interactions in the mixture of oxygenate and base gasoline is described by mathematical methods.
The necessity of mathematical model for calculation of anti-knock characteristics of oxygenates for their competent planning and involvement in commercial gasoline is proved. The developed model of calculation of the octane number of blending research and motor methods for MTAE and MTBE. High convergence of simulation results and laboratory tests is shown. The contribution of different classes of hydrocarbons to the intensity of intermolecular interactions in the mixture of oxygenate and base gasoline is described by mathematical methods.

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DOI: 10.32758/2071-5951-2019-0-05-4-9

Improving the performance properties of automotive motor oils in the development of global requirements and specifications

Zolotov V.A.

All-Russian Research Institute for Oil Refining [VNII NP]

Keywords: Performance properties, automotive motor oils, global requirements, specification, method of test, engine, emission standards, fuel economy, low speed pre-ignition.
The article provides information on the state of development of test methods for automotive motor oils of the last generation and the formation of specifications abroad in the development of global requirements for the performance properties of oils. In this regard, the development of technologies for the development of the oils themselves and the methodology of their testing is relevant.
The next stage of reducing emission standards of harmful particles in exhaust gases will come into force in 2021, and these requirements can presumably be met with oils of modified component composition that meet the requirements of FA-4 category according to API, and have advantages in terms of fuel savings over oils of other categories. Medium-term prospects for reducing emission standards for harmful particles in exhaust gases are planned for 2024, but these norms can presumably be met without upgrading the composition of engine oil by improving the design of the engine and vehicle as a whole.
Emission levels of harmful particles in the exhaust gases by 2027 and will lead to the creation of oils of the new category PC-12. Heavy-duty engine oil will be aimed at higher engine operating temperatures and will provide better wear protection for parts.
Methods based on Ford and General Motors engines have been developed, among other things, for testing oils in accordance with the requirements of the ILSAC GF-6 category, which is accordingly divided into categories GF-6A and GF-6B. The ACEA and ILSAC categories, along with the API, are the most widely used oil standards in the world. Reducing the duration of the methods is a serious problem, given the complexity of the developing categories, not to mention the investment to develop compositions of new motor oils and support for automakers.
Despite the advantages of low-volume, direct-injection and turbo-supercharged gasoline engines (TGDI engines) in fuel efficiency during their operation, the problem of pre-ignition at low speeds (Low Speed Pre-Ignition - LSPI) arose, which is a significant obstacle to achieving fuel efficiency and CO2 emission standards. The cause of LSPI may also be due to the chemical composition and structure of the detergent and antioxidant additives used in motor oils.

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2. Zolotov V.A. Global requirements for operational properties of modern motor oils [Global'nye trebovaniya k ekspluatatsionnym svoystvam sovremennykh motornykh masel]. Mir nefteproduktov. Vestnik neftyanykh kovpaniy - World of oil products. The Oil Companies' Bulletin, 2018, no. 5, p. 34-40. 3. Swedberg S. API CK-4 and FA-4 Diesel Oils Readily Available on Anniversary of Engine Oil Categories. OEM Lube News. Lubrication Technologies, 2017, v. 13, iss. 50.
4. Haffner S. Ford Progresses on 6,7L Diesel Test. Lube report, 2017, v. 17, iss. 51.
5. Swedberg S. Ford Recommendeds FA-4 for F-150. Lube report, 2018, v. 1, iss. 35.
6. Haffner S. ACEA Use of ILSAC Tests Draws Concerns. Lube report, 2018, v. 1, iss. 46.
7. Dogra R. Is LSPI Hindering the Pursuit of Better Fuel Economy? Fuel and Lubes International, Quarter Three, 2013, pp. 42-44.

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